What Countries Are in the Montreal Protocol

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The main objective of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol is to assist developing countries that are Parties to the Montreal Protocol and whose annual per capita consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are less than 0.3 kg to comply with the Protocol`s control measures. Currently, 147 of the 196 Parties to the Montreal Protocol meet these criteria (so-called Article 5 countries). The original agreement aimed to reduce the production and consumption of various types of CFCs and halons to 80 per cent of 1986 levels by 1994 and to 50 per cent of 1986 levels by 1999. The Protocol entered into force on 1 January 1989. Since then, the agreement has been amended to further reduce and completely eliminate CFCs and halons, as well as the production and use of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HBFCs), methyl bromide and other OACs. Several subsequent meetings of signatory countries have been convened to monitor overall progress towards this goal and to approve further changes to the process of phasing out THE CDOs. Given all these factors and more, the Montreal Protocol is considered one of the most successful environmental agreements of all time. What the Parties to the Protocol have accomplished since 1987 is unprecedented and continues to provide an inspiring example of what international cooperation can achieve at its best. The good news: in Bali, support for measures to avoid a catastrophic increase in HFCs production continued to grow.

108 countries – more than half of the world`s countries – have now come out in favour of continuing proposals to phase out HFCs from Micronesia, as well as from Canada, Mexico and the United States. That`s an increase from 91 supporters last year and 41 from two years ago. (The countries are listed below.) The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer of the Vienna Convention has been ratified by all 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Since its entry into force in 1989 and in response to technological advances, the Protocol has been adapted six times and amended four times. Both the Convention and the Protocol (including the four amendments) have universal participation. The objective of the Protocol is to set limits on the production and consumption of the main chemicals that destroy the ozone layer that protects the earth. The Protocol also contributes to global efforts to combat climate change, as most of the ozone-depleting substances phased out by the Protocol are also important greenhouse gases. The international treaty, known as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol), phases out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances in order to limit their degradation of the Earth`s ozone layer.

The Montreal Protocol is signed by 197 countries – the first treaty in the history of the United Nations to be universally ratified – and is considered by many to be the most successful global environmental action. Throughout the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, developing countries have shown that with the right kind of assistance, they are willing, willing and able to be full partners in global efforts to protect the environment. In fact, with the support of the Multilateral Fund, many developing countries have exceeded the reduction targets set for the phase-out of ODS. It embodies the principle agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 that countries have a common but differentiated responsibility for the protection and management of the world`s commons. Until the 23rd. In June 2015, all United Nations countries, the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue and the European Union ratified the original Montreal Protocol (see external link below)[42], with South Sudan being the last country to ratify the agreement, bringing the total to 197. These countries also ratified the amendments in London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing. [12] In any case, it is a safe bet that Micronesia and the United States, Mexico and Canada will resubmit their proposals next year, and that the pressure on the few countries that stand in the way will continue to increase.

This issue has been negotiated by the Parties since 2009 and the successful agreement on the Kigali Amendment (Decision XXVIII/1 and related Decision XXVIII/2) continues the historical legacy of the Montreal Protocol. The Kigali amendment took place on the 1st. January 2019 for countries that have ratified the amendment. The Fund shall be administered by an Executive Committee in which seven industrialized countries and seven Article 5 countries shall be equally represented, elected annually by an Assembly of the Parties. The Committee shall report annually to the Meeting of the Parties on its commercial activities. The Multilateral Fund`s field work in developing countries is carried out by four implementing agencies that have concluded contractual agreements with the Executive Committee[40] Mainly produced in industrialized countries, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs do not damage the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine. However, these are greenhouse gases with a high global warming potential (GWP), comparable to that of CFCs and HCFCs. [27] [28] In 2009, a study calculated that a rapid reduction in high GWP HFCs by 2050 could potentially prevent the equivalent of up to 8.8 Gt of CO2 equivalent per year in emissions. [29] A proposed phase-out of HFCs should therefore avoid warming of up to 0.5°C by 2100 in the high HFC growth scenario and up to 0.35°C in the low HFC growth scenario. [30] Recognizing the possibility offered by the Montreal Protocol for rapid and effective phase-out of HFCs, the Federated States of Micronesia proposed an amendment starting in 2009 to phase out high-GWP HFCs[31], with the United States, Canada and Mexico submitting a similar proposal in 2010.

[32] Chlorofluorocarbons, commonly known as HCFCs, are a group of artificially produced compounds containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. .

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